All posts by SustainableRossmoor

Are We in Wonderland?

Are rapidly changing climatic conditions is making our world unrecognizable? Have we slipped down a rabbit hole and come out to another world?

All this because of what has been “an inconvenient truth” that many have ignored far too long. If we hold a “looking-glass” up to our eyes, what will we see in this futuristic world?

One area of great change is agriculture, worldwide. Last April, Janessa Olsen spoke about environment and modern agriculture during Sustainable Rossmoor’s monthly meeting. Ms. Olsen represents the Ethical Choices Program, which presents outreach programs to area schools. Much of her presentation addressed the effects of factory farming (“industrial agriculture”) on the environment. She said genetically modified crops contain pesticides and herbicides.  She said they also have damaging effects on the soil.

Dangers Posed by Factory Farming

We learned industrial agriculture cultivates single species crops for efficiency.  But this practice is problematic, as it makes them more vulnerable to disease. Crops that feed us, and the animals we consume, also can contain pesticides within their DNA. The effects of these GMO’s on our own DNA, however, are often unknown. The foods derived from these crops can play havoc with our “microbiome” (gut) and can even cross the blood-brain barrier.

Olsen also described the abuse of animals in factory farming. Cattle, pigs and chickens often live in overcrowded holding pens. Agitated, the chickens peck at each other. Farmers crop the chicken’s beaks in an effort to prevent this.

Dairy cows are separated from their newborn calves after giving birth.  They are also milked by automatic-milking machines. Many of these are also on a revolving platforms, which cows resist and have to be prodded aggressively to enter.

Factory farming leads to other major environmental problems. Beef cattle farmers clear swaths of rain forest to provide grazing areas.  The practice significantly elevates greenhouse gases, notably methane and carbon dioxide. Uncontrolled waste runoff from pigs and cattle also into the ground water polluting ground water.  The pollution causes the current crisis involving Listeria and Salmonella in crops harvested for food.

Innovative Farming Practices

Rapidly changing climatic conditions demand new solutions.  Innovative responses to counter environmental toxins and such cruelty to animals have proliferated in recent years. First, indoor “vertical farming” is growing in large cities. Secondly, cultured, or cell-based, meat and fish produced in laboratories, can provide “meat” without killing or harming animals. Third, alternative “milks,” derived from plants such as soy, almond, cashew and oats are replacing dairy milk and milk products. Let’s take a closer look at those first two innovations.

Vertical Farming
Hydroponics
Lettuce is grown hydroponically indoors without pesticides

First, “vertical farms” are springing up in urban areas throughout our country and the world. The farms eliminate the need to transport food long distances, thereby reducing the food’s carbon footprint.  Located in warehouses, shipping containers and converted factories, these “farms” are viable year-round.  They are also many times more productive than soil-based farms. By using LED lighting and hydroponics with nutrient-rich water, without the need for pesticides, they also save water and energy.

One such project is Square Roots in Brooklyn, New York.  Square Roots is a compound of 10 steel shipping containers.  The farm grows soil-free crops indoors under LED lights. Chef/restauranteur Kimbal Musk (brother of Elon Musk) and Tobias Peggs co-founded Square Roots. Its lights require less energy than conventional lighting, give off little heat and are focused to optimize plant growth year-round.

Some critics argue these urban farms don’t guarantee the ability to feed the world’s projected population explosion.  However, proponents believe they are key to our future survival. As early as 2016, Musk and Peggs realized people between ages 25 and 34, approximately 69% with college degrees, were increasingly becoming farmers concerned with environmental safety.

For more, see this USDA report https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2018/08/14/vertical-farming-future.

Meat Alternatives

Second, creating “meat” in laboratories eliminates the need to kill animals. The film The End of Meat illustrates world-wide efforts to accomplish this. The film addresses the impacts of meat consumption.  It also highlights the benefits of a vegan diet and the roles animals can have in society in the future. Sustainable Rossmoor and Plant-Based Rossmoor also featured the film in June. For more information, visit https://www.humanedecisions.com/the-end-of-meat/ .

What local efforts have emerged to counter rapidly changing climatic conditions? One of a growing number of startups is Memphis Meats. Founded in 2015, it is based in Emeryville. The company believes traditional production damages the environment and unnecessarily harms animals.  Memphis Meats co-founder Uma Valeti, a former cardiologist, also believes his company will “continue the choice of eating meat for many generations … without putting undue stress on the planet.” The company was featured in an NBC Bay Area article this July. For more information, see https://www.memphismeats.com .

Numerous research articles have probed the effects of this major change on greenhouse gases and their warming impacts on our Earth. Such research remains a future area to explore with our “looking-glass” in this “Wonderland” of our time.

Courtesy of Rossmoor News, August 7, 2019.  Email Joy Danzig at joyfuld@gmail.com.

Is Climate Change Really a Hoax?

By Brad Waite

We have all seen news reports or read articles claiming climate change is not happening.  Some say it is an intentional hoax. Others say if it is real, humans are not the primary cause.

For example, you can find plenty of recent survey results on this question online. About 60% of respondents agree climate change is happening and humans are the primary cause. However, a different story emerges when you break that 60% total down between Republicans and Democrats. Only one-third of Republicans agree, while more than 90% of Democrats do. This is very interesting. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of climate scientists agree about climate change and human activities.

Scientific Consensus

Here I should note the 97% figure is not a guess. Authors of seven climate consensus studies co-authored a paper concluding this.  The authors looked at more than 12,000 climate study papers. They found between 90% and 100% of the published climate scientists agree humans are responsible for climate change. Further, the greater the climate expertise among those surveyed, the higher the consensus on human-caused global warming.

To be clear, those seven authors each did their own study of the published studies, and then they compared results. The composite result found a 97% consensus among published climate scientists.

So if 97% of climate scientists agree, why would only 30-some percent of Republicans agree? Surely a lot more than 30% of Republicans must believe in science. Especially since the Trump Administration published in early 2018 the 4th U.S. National Climate Assessment, which supports the consensus view.

Merchants of Doubt

Climate Change
More powerful hurricanes are causing greater devastation every year

What’s going on here? Naomi Oreskes, one of the seven authors, supplied the answer. Ms. Oreskes wrote a book titled, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. The book is now a documentary.

In the book/movie, historians Oreskes and Erik Conway explain how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists, with extensive political connections, ran effective campaigns to intentionally mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades.

In the 1950s, Big Tobacco developed a disinformation campaign playbook to debunk growing concerns over cigaret smoking.  It used the playbook for decades, while millions died from smoking related illnesses. Since then, other industries used the playbook to debunk the dangers of acid rain, the ozone hole and DDT.  Now they are being used in the  climate change debate.

I’ll confess I have not read the book but have seen the documentary twice and highly recommend everyone do so. In it, the players admit what they are doing, how and why. And it still occurs today.

A Little Doubt Goes a Long Way

Climate Change
Wildfires are on the increase throughout the western US

The Brennan Center for Justice reports the oil and gas industry spent $1.4 billion in the past decade telling the federal government climate change didn’t/doesn’t exist. The Brennan Center is a nonpartisan law and policy institute at the NYU School of Law. On the surface $1.4 billion seems like a lot of money. Yet, it’s a small cost for the oil and gas industry.  The U.S. Energy Information Administration reports net income for 43 U.S. oil producers totaled $28 billion in 2018 alone.

Just like they did for big tobacco, they didn’t need to or try to convince everyone. They just needed to sow enough doubt to delay action being taken against their product as long as they could, in this case literally decades. And when this is coupled with the huge political contributions made to key politicians, the results were/are very effective.

Our best method to counteract this is to speak loudly and authoritatively to everyone who we can get to listen, especially our elected officials. Watch this column for future articles on specific actions you can take and consider attending the monthly Sustainable Rossmoor meetings.

Courtesy of Rossmoor News, July 31, 2019. Email Brad Waite at bradwaite@comcast.net

DEATH BY DESIGN – OCTOBER SR FILM

“Death by Design” is our film on Oct 9.

This film exposes the extent to which the booming electronics industry damages the environment and impacts public health in many countries where our devices are made and materials are extracted and processed. But, it also helps the viewer make more informed choices and join effective channels of activism.

Consumers love – and live on – their smartphones, tablets and laptops. A cascade of new devices pours endlessly into the market, promising even better communication, non-stop entertainment and instant information.

The numbers are staggering. By 2020, four billion people will have a personal computer. Five billion will own a mobile phone. But this revolution has a dark side, hidden from most consumers.

In an investigation that spans the globe investigates the hidden underbelly of the electronics industry and reveals how even the smallest devices have deadly environmental and health costs.

Searching Electronics Waste pile

From the intensely secretive factories in China, to a ravaged New York community and the high tech corridors of Silicon Valley, the film tells a story of environmental degradation, of health tragedies, and the fast approaching tipping point between consumerism and sustainability.

Some of the film’s heroes are whistleblowers, innovative recyclers, and a small Irish company that builds a fair-trade/sustainable computer.

The 73-minute film has SDH captions and will be followed by an optional discussion.

Trailer: https://youtu.be/-jRRxffVOKg

Yosemite’s Disappearing Glaciers

By Jennifer Mu

My husband and I spent a week in Yosemite National Park in April. It had been two decades since our last trip to Yosemite.

A week before we left home, I heard on the radio that Yosemite’s last two glaciers are fast disappearing. I went to the National Park’s website, and it predicted that Lyell’s Glacier could completely disappear in 2020. I thought this could be our last chance to see it, or whatever is left of it.

Melting glaciers are not news. It has been happening all over the world. From Himalaya to Peru, from the Arctic to Antarctica, glaciers are fast retreating. For years I’ve had this sense of urgency to see glaciers before they have all melted away.

We drove to the Canadian Glacier National Park in British Columbia years ago and there was not much there. On a tour to the Arctic, we saw retreating glaciers and chunks and chunks of floating ice with beautiful blue hues. We still haven’t made it to the Glacier National Park in Montana, but have read articles about its shrinking glaciers. The melting glaciers in Yosemite are too close to home to not check them out in person.

Yosemite’s Glaciers

Studies of Yosemite’s glaciers began in 1872. John Muir drove pine stakes into an ice field on Mount Maclure to measure its movement. He eventually convinced the world glaciers carved Yosemite Valley.

Yosemite's disappearing glaciers
Yosemite’s majesty is inspirational in all seasons, yet we are ruining its ecosystem.

After it was designated a national park, Yosemite’s scientists continued the regular survey of the two remaining glaciers, Lyell and Maclure. The most recent data indicated that the glaciers’ surface has shrunk from 300 acres to 60 acres, an 80% loss of glacier ice, since 1883 when they were first mapped and photographed. The Lyell Glacier has completely stopped moving, so it’s no longer a glacier by definition. In other words, it’s dead. Yosemite’s geologist, who was interviewed on the NPR program that I was listening to, described today’s Lyell Glacier as “a stagnant ice patch.”

Glaciers have come and gone with nature’s cycles, advancing and retreating about every 100,000 years. Scientists agree the current accelerated melting of Earth’s glaciers is due to the warmer temperatures caused by human activities. I don’t need to repeat here the consequences of melted glaciers, rising sea levels and warmer sea surface temperatures; we are already living some of them now.

Theoretically, more snow in the winter and colder temperatures could restore the glaciers. But the Earth is already in such deep trouble that I don’t know how to stay optimistic. There were news reports a Russian town near the entrance to the Arctic Ocean registered a record high 84 degrees on one weekend in May this year. The town’s average high temperature is normally around 54 degrees that time of year. During the same weekend Hawaii’s Mauna Loa Observatory registered the highest concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in human history.

The Importance of Yosemite’s Glaciers

Yosemite's disappearing glaciers
A calf from a glacier casts a blue shadow on the ocean.

According to Yosemite Park’s geologist, even if we stop emitting greenhouse gases today, it would be too late for Lyell and Maclure. Click here to see photos demonstrating the retreating glaciers. This is not something we can just feel a brief moment of sadness about and forget. The effect of their disappearance will touch each of us in the Bay Area in our lifetime.

These two glaciers provide for the headwaters of the Tuolumne River, keeping it flowing during summer and fall. The river is the primary source of drinking water for San Francisco. It also provides irrigation water for parts of the Central Valley. The glacier’s deaths will bring drastic changes in the ecosystem – that we are part of – for centuries. The lifestyle we know, and take for granted, will be no more.

It also means future generations will only learn about these glaciers, and their significance to the ecosystems and communities relying on them, in the park museum.

Courtesy of the Rossmoor News, July 10, 2019.  Email Jennifer Mu at barnhartmu8833@gmail.com

Single Use Plastic – 450 Years or More

By Dale J. Harrington

All of us have read and heard about why we should stop using single-use plastic water bottles. While a mind-boggling number of them are recycled, too many of them still go unrecycled.

I decided to check on how long it can take a plastic bottle to decompose; if it is not recycled and instead placed in landfill. The answer – 450 years or more, according to an article on the Balance Small Business website. Even worse, the plastic bags we use in our everyday life can take 10 to 1,000 years to decompose.

These figures should cause all of us to reconsider when we use plastic and certainly how we dispose of it.

Decomposition: Organics versus Plastics

single use plastic
Unless recycled, plastic degrades into micro particles in sunlight and enters the earth’s ecosystems.

This same site explained why plastic takes so long to decompose. It’s “because petroleum-based plastics like PET don’t decompose the same way organic material does. … This kind of decomposition requires sunlight, not bacteria. When UV rays strike plastic, they break the bonds holding the long molecular chain together.”

By comparison, vegetables take five (5) days to one (1) month, aluminum cans 80 to 100 years, glass bottles one (1) million years and Styrofoam cups 500 years to forever.

Plastics will degrade into small pieces until you can’t see them anymore (so small you’d need a microscope or better to see them). But, do plastics fully go away? Most commonly used plastics do not mineralize (or go away) in the ocean. Instead, plastics break down into smaller and smaller pieces.

How many animals die from six-pack rings? Plastic rings have been available for four decades, and they are now more heavily regulated than they were when first produced. In 1987, the Associated Press reported six-pack rings kill one million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals every year.

Another article, on the website Sciencing, noted it takes 100 years for a flashlight battery to decompose.

Rossmoor’s Compostable Alternative

single use plastic
Single use plastic is ubiquitous in today’s marketplace: straws, pens, product wrapping, and all types of bottles and bags.

With composting now available in Rossmoor, it is a good idea to look for items that are compostable when having a picnic, such as eating utensils, plates, cups, napkins, etc.

My wife and I recently hosted a family reunion here in Rossmoor and we used compostable utensils, plates, and napkins. To avoid confusion for the guests, we had containers with notes that listed the items for disposal. They included recycling, landfill and compost items. However, instead of listing these words on the labels, we provided a list of the items for each, such as cans and bottles, utensils, plates, cups, pizza boxes and napkins.

Courtesy of Rossmoor News, June 26, 2019.  Email Dale Harrington at dalejharrington@gmail.com.

September Movie: THE BIGGEST LITTLE FARM

SR Movie in September:  THE BIGGEST LITTLE FARM

When: Wednesday, September 11, 7 PM    Location: Peacock Hall

This multiple-award-winning film is a testament to the immense complexity of nature as it follows two dreamers and a dog on an odyssey to bring harmony to both their lives and to farm the land. Emmy-winning wildlife filmmaker John Chester and his wife Molly, a chef, leave their apartment in Santa Monica to discover what restorative farming could do for 200 acres of abused, barren land. Through unflagging perseverance and embracing the opportunity provided by nature’s conflicts, the Chester’s unlock and uncover a bio-diverse design for living that exists far beyond their farm, its seasons, and our wildest imagination.
This film features breathtaking cinematography, a wide variety of animals, and an urgent message to heed Mother Nature’s call. It provides us all a vital blueprint for better living and a healthier planet.
The farm’s residents came to include pigs, goats, sheep, chickens, ducks, guinea hens, horses, highland cattle, Emma the pig, and  Maggie the brown swiss dairy cow. The land consists of biodynamic certified avocado and lemon orchards, a vegetable garden, pastures, and over 75 varieties of stone fruit.
 
The film is 92 minutes. 
It has a 96% rating on Rotten Tomatoes. 
No captions
The writer/director, John Chester, is interviewed by Terry Gross on NPR’s FRESH AIR, on May 6, 2019. 13 minutes.
“… the documentary does show that an eco-conscious farm is viable and sustainable, even in the dust bowl of drought-parched California. That the Chesters’ spread is exceptionally picturesque is just a bonus.”   https://www.npr.org/2019/05/08/721464968/documentary-offers-eco-conscious-farm-wisdom-biggest-little-farm 

Trees and Climate Change – It’s Complicated

By Anne Foreman

How is climate change affecting our forests?

Telltale signs that forests are changing are everywhere. Warmer winters and drier summers with unpredictable rainfall are bringing more intense insect plagues. These plagues can kill trees in just a few years. Link to information about the mountain pine beetle.  Droughts leave forests more and more susceptible to wildfires.

The Case of Maple Syrup

climate change affecting forests
Maple syrup production has decreased as moderate winter temperatures have increased.

Climate Change is already affecting maple syrup. Maple tree owners boil maple sap to make maple syrup. Native Americans invented maple syrup long before Europeans arrived in the Americas. It is now a signature crop in Canada.

Maple trees require specific temperature conditions to produce sap that flows – daytime highs above freezing with nighttime lows below freezing. These conditions have historically occurred for 6 to 8 weeks, two times a year – when winter turns to spring, and again when fall turns to winter.

The Fulton family is seeing big changes in sap yield.  The Fultons are fourth generation maple syrup producers in Ontario, Canada. In 2012, for example, the sap in their maple trees flowed for just 13 days instead of 6 to 8 weeks because the temperatures weren’t right.

The Case of Forest Profiteers

Most wood sellers aren’t putting careful thought into the effects of climate change, according to Chris Swanston of the U.S. Forest Service. He says real-estate investment trusts and other financial entities own a majority of today’s timberland. These investors are more interested in short-term profits than sustainability. As a result, profit now trumps long-term forest health.

Putting Foresight over Profit

One forest owner is thinking about the future. John Rajala owns 22,000 acres of northern pine and hardwoods in Minnesota. He has a “300-year plan” for managing his trees. Rajala leaves a lot of trees on the land to reseed the forests with good genetic stock. He also plants a variety of trees as a hedge for a warmer climate in the future. Rajala reasons that if some species do badly in a warmer tomorrow, others will flourish.

climate change affecting forests
As global temperatures rise, forest fires have grew in size and frequency.

The U.S. Forest Service is also thinking about how climate change is affecting forests. Four years ago, the Service began running experiments at five sites around the country to try to answer the question of how best to help woodlands adapt to climate change. 

Four approaches are being tested: (1) passively letting nature take its course; (2) thinning and managing mostly native trees along traditional lines; (3) growing a mix of native species with some coming from 100 miles to the south; and (4) the most radical one, bringing in non-native trees from warmer, drier areas in nearby states. This fourth experiment is basically what Rajala is doing in Minnesota. For more information about adaptation approaches.

What’s the “Right” Answer? Well….

So, is planting non-native trees the answer, trying to anticipate future climates? Most trees can migrate only as fast as their seeds disperse. There is no way that trees can “outrun” climate change.

The scientific community is divided about the wisdom of planting non-native trees in any environment. No one knows the unintended consequences might be of shuffling trees around. Moving species is the equivalent of ecological gambling, some scientists say. Other scientists say we can’t wait to try experimenting until we know everything.

So, what’s the bottom line for ensuring forests for future generations? Well … it’s complicated.

Courtesy of the Rossmoor News, June 12, 2019.  Email Anne Foreman at anneforeman60@gmail.com.

Big Oil & The Bay: Why Particulate Matter Matters, and Other Burning Issues

SR Presentation

The Bay Area is widely known as a center of environmental progressivism, but with its multiple refineries and export terminals it is also an important nexus for the fossil fuel industry. On Thursday, August 29th at 2 pm in the Club Room, Shoshana Wechsler will speak on Big Oil & The Bay: Why Particulate Matter Matters, and Other Burning Issues. This talk is sponsored by Sustainable Rossmoor.

Local Refineries

The Chevron refinery in Richmond is the world’s largest single stationary source of greenhouse gas production. Chevron is only one for four refineries in our county. In total, these refineries produce 94% of the county’s greenhouse gases, and are seriously under-regulated. These facilities are being expanded to increase the refining of tar sands crude oil, the world’s most carbon-intensive and polluting of fuel sources. At times, it seems that Big Oil has a stranglehold on our local politics. As you’ll learn in this talk, the more immediate health harm comes from other invisible forms of air pollution.

What You Can Do

What exactly is going on here, what are the climate and health impacts, and what can we do about it? Hear about fossil fuel resistance in our own region, and how you can get involved.

Speaker

Shoshana Wechsler is a founding member of the Sunflower Alliance, an East Bay climate justice organization working for a rapid transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to environmental renewal and social equity.  She serves on the Policy Team for 350 Bay Area, and is an alternate District 1 representative on the Contra Costa County Sustainability Commission.  A native Californian, she was born and raised in Solano and Contra Costa counties, and educated at U.C. and Stanford in literature and cultural studies.

Free Refinery Primer

Fighting Pollution of Bay Area Refineries, For Our Health, For Our Future — free, illustrated 16-page primer summarizes the environmental and climate impacts of the Bay Area’s five oil refineries,
http://www.sunflower-alliance.org/refinery-primer/

Let’s Pull Some Levers to Create Change

By James Ware

We are running out of time. There are levers to battle the increasing effects of climate change.

The Fourth National Climate Assessment Report states our civilization is facing an irreversible tipping point in less than 12 years. The Report was published last December.

If we don’t act now to change the path we are on, we face a bleak future. Sea levels are rising.  Severe weather events are increasing, as are devastating wildfires. Such conditions have already created massive cost increases for safety, environmental mitigation, restoration and property insurance.

We face challenges on so many fronts it is tempting to throw up our hands in despair and just give up. However, no matter how dire the threat of climate change appears to be, there are constructive actions we can – and must – take, both individually and collectively.

Climate Crusaders

climate crusader toolkit
Climate crusaders need a toolkit of levers to combat climate change.

Becoming an effective “Climate Crusader” means assembling an effective toolkit for driving large-scale social change. The good news is that if we learn to apply the right tools – even just some of them – we can have an impact on our future well beyond what most of us think is possible.

Just consider for a moment the many life-changing transformations in mindsets and practices we have experienced in our own lifetimes: the adoption of automobile seat belts; the campaign to make smoking seriously unpopular; the explosion of interest in healthy foods and physical fitness; our increasing reliance on social media for communications and relationships; and the rapid shift from shopping malls to online retailers. We can learn a great deal by analyzing how and why these transformations took place.

Nora Silver, a professor at the Haas School of Business at University of California Berkeley, has studied more than 200 examples of large-scale social change. Her research unearthed seven specific “levers” that can produce meaningful, wide-spread and long-lasting change in both behaviors and beliefs.

Becoming an effective “Climate Crusader” means assembling an effective toolkit for driving large scale social change.

Seven Levers to Drive Large Scale Change

Be smart, use levers to create change. Here, briefly, are Silver’s magnificent seven: 

Grassroots Organizing

The eruption, out of deep-seated beliefs and frustrations, of bottoms-up movements seeking to redress a grievance or con-front a challenge. Think of the #metoo movement, Black Lives Matter, and #neveragain.

Coalitions

The coming together of multiple groups that share a common interest. To co-opt a slogan familiar to Golden State Warriors fans, there is a “Strength in Numbers” that aggregates resources and leverages relationships to generate both power and impact.

Single Organizations

Sometimes a single organization produces fundamental change. Consider, for example, the impact of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD); and Planned Parenthood, even in the face of withering political pressure.

levers create change
Technology

Harnessing the power of social media is an obvious way to reach large numbers of people. Whether it is cell phones, Twitter, Facebook, television, the Internet, or even plain old snail-mailed letters, technology enables us to leverage ideas and calls to action like no other tool.

Finance

The power of the purse often overwhelms everything else. Just consider how the divestment movement helped end apartheid in South Africa, or how subsidies, incentives and tax breaks impact our purchasing decisions about cars, electricity, gasoline, lightbulbs and food.

The Law

When all else fails, legislation can certainly change behaviors (if not beliefs). Just think of smoke-free restaurants, marriage equality and the end of segregated public schools.

Communication

Establishing brand images, using humor, generating television coverage of protests. The way your messages are framed and perceived can have an unbelievable impact on their effectiveness.

Clearly, these seven levers are not mutually exclusive. I believe they have the biggest impact when used in combination with each other. In my view, we Climate Crusaders should pull as many of these levers as we can in all of our campaigns to combat climate change.

Courtesy of the Rossmoor News, May 29, 2019.  Email James Ware, PhD, at jim@jimware.com.